As I introduce the book to you – I take a brief respite into Levity. The book is deep but lets have FUN with it. Its a LIVING GREEN E-BOOK
An Eclectic Living GREEN – E- Book that develops Writing Skills and grammar and lends itself in particular to Student – Centered English language and linguistic language development including English as a Second language.
It’s a book written to work within any curriculum that requires English language, without the need to fully study, each chapter or lesson. Parts of chapters can be adapted as per the students’ ability. All chapters can be studied in parts, due to the learners’ levels. Its ease of function allows it to be used in High School, Middle School and onto University. Student ages and levels are addressed by the practical functionality of each Chapter and Story. So press on with your study of English language development. The book is designed to be written with your notes and stories within the book. The Book of 25, acts as a WORK BOOK and a language reference guide. It highlights many of the grammatical issues that ESL learners and all students will encounter, with a focus on a Lexical Approach. I refer to writing as a Co- creative; venture as we are all influenced by each other through all communication mediums. Writing is an act of Co-Creation and a lexical approach uses vocabulary to teach vocabulary and to assist in the understanding of language drifts and the creation of blended languages, such as the creoles, Spanglish,Tringlish, Manglish and Konglish. And it also may well create true cognates versus false cognates in language development. The Book of 25 introduces Language Harmonics as a progressive field of research.
Each chapter can be used to augment any curriculum, as it teaches Literacy through the joint motto’s of Read-Think-Write and WRITER WRITE. The book has a high visual appeal and seduces the learner into reading, thinking and writing. It was deemed by academic colleagues as an essential learning tool. The Book of 25 is being sold as an E-Book. It’s available on Flash Drive, upholding the Green concepts that exist circa 2012. A Living Book that can be updated as per the Institution’s or Ministry of Education’s directives. Students can download specific chapters or parts thereof, reducing costs and keeping a green environment.
Creative Writing and Academic Writing
A story has many elements. The plot, provides the basis for the events and situations that occur, determines how they are structured, and holds everything together. It explains why characters behave the way they do. I use the classical Freytag’s pyramid to assist in writing development.
A plot’s structure basically consists of the following:
- Exposition introduces the characters, setting, and other facts needed to understand the story.
- Conflict, or rising action, builds tension and leads up to the climax.
- The climax is the turning point of the story. It is the high point for the reader and often results from a crisis.
- Falling action occurs after the climax, when the events come together to explain what went on.
- Resolution is the final outcome of the conflict and climax.
Academic essays or Writing for academia is a lot more structured.
Academic Essay Structure
Writing an academic essay means shaping a coherent set of ideas into an argument. As Essays are essentially linear, offering one idea at a time, they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Effectively structuring an essay means attending to a reader’s logic. The focus of such an essay predicts its structure. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types there are no set formulas.
The Parts of an Essay
An essay contains several kinds of information, located in specific parts or sections. Even short essays implement different operations such as, introducing the argument, analyzing data, raising counter-arguments, and conclusions. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places, but other parts don’t. It’s helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask.
“What?” The first question to anticipate from a reader is “what”. What evidence shows that the phenomenon described by your thesis is true? This “what” or “demonstration” section comes early in the essay, often after the introduction. As you’re essentially reporting what you’ve observed, this is the part you might have most to say about when you first start writing.
“How?” A reader will also want to know whether the claims of the thesis are true in all cases. The corresponding question is “how”. How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counter-argument? How does the introduction of new material, a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of source ,affect the claims you’re making? Normally, an essay will include at least one “how” section. This section usually follows the “what,” but could appear just about anywhere in an essay.
“Why?” Your reader will also want to know what’s at stake in your claim. Why does your analysis of a phenomenon matter to anyone beside you?
This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering “why”, your essay explains its own importance. The best answer to “why”, belongs at your essay’s end. If its left out, your readers will experience your essay as incomplete—or meaningless.
Mapping an Essay
Structuring your essay according to a reader’s logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay’s ideas via a written narrative. Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader’s needs in understanding your idea.
Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counter-argument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make.
Try assembling your map like this:
- State your thesis in a sentence or two, then, write another sentence saying why it’s important to make that claim. Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you. Here you’re anticipating your answer to the “why” question that you’ll eventually flesh out in your conclusion.
- Begin your next sentence like this: “To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is . . .” Then say why that’s the first thing a reader needs to know, and name one or two items of evidence you think will make the case. This will start you off on answering the “what” question.
- Begin each of the following sentences like this: “The next thing my reader needs to know is . . .” Once again, say why, and name some evidence. Continue until you’ve mapped out your essay.
Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas.
Citation and Style Guides
…Are essential for academic writing and as such need to be introduced. As required in the following chapters we will reference and apply these styles in part to your lessons. It is essential that you need to know how to reference and cite all referenced material. Plagiarism is an offence in many institutions.
Why cite sources?
Whenever you quote or base your ideas on another person’s work, you must document the source you used. Even when you do not quote directly from another work, if reading that source contributed to the ideas presented in your paper, you must give the authors proper credit.
Listed below are the style guides. This will be discussed in class as per the more academic essays that are to be studied.
American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide
Direct quotations of sources
Direct quotations allow you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference in the Reference List page at the end of your paper.
Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation marks. Provide the author, publication year and a page number.
- She stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ …disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied. Miele (1993) found that “the ‘placebo effect,’ which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner” (p. 276).
- When making a quotation of more than 40 words, use a free-standing “block quotation” on a new line, indented five spaces and omit quotation marks.
- Miele (1993) found the following:
- The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited, even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)
For electronic sources such as Web pages, provide a reference to the author, the year and the page number (if it is a PDF document), the paragraph number if visible or a heading followed by the paragraph number.
- “The current system of managed care and the current approach to defining empirically supported treatments are shortsighted” (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, ¶ 1)
When using your own words to refer indirectly to another author’s work, you must identify the original source. A complete reference must appear in the Reference List at the end of your paper.
In most cases, providing the author’s last name and the publication year are sufficient:
- Smith (1997) compared reaction times… Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references.Smith (1997) compared reaction times. Smith also found that…
- If there are two authors, include the last name of each and the publication year:
- …as James and Ryerson (1999) demonstrated…
…as has been shown (James and Ryerson, 1999)…
- If there are three to five authors, cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year:
- Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (1983) found…
Williams et al. (1983) also noticed that…
- The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. If it will not cause confusion for the reader, names may be abbreviated thereafter:
- First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)
Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 1999)
- To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table or equation at the appropriate point in the text:
- (Czapiewski & Ruby, 1995, p. 10)
(Wilmarth, 1980, Chapter 3)
- For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the ¶ symbol or abbreviation para. If neither is visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the quoted material.
- (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)
When citing a work which is discussed in another work, include the original author’s name in an explanatory sentence, and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list.
- Smith argued that…(as cited in Andrews, 2007)
The alphabetical list of references that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you have used allowing readers to refer to them, as needed. The main characteristics are:
- The list of references must be on a new page at the end of your text
- The word References should be centered at the top of the page
- Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name or by the title if there is no author
- Titles of larger works (i.e. books, journals, encyclopedias) are italicized
- Entries are double-spaced (for the purposes of this handout, single-spacing is used)
- For each entry, the first line is typed flush with the left margin. Additional lines are indented as a group a few spaces to the right of the left margin (hanging indent)
Below are some examples of the most common types of sources
- Book with one author/ Work with two authors
- Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Atheneum.
- Electronic book
Replace place and publisher information with the DOI.
- Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A., & Buckley, K.E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research and public policy. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309836.001.0001
- Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Two or more works by the same author
Arrange by the year of publication, the earliest first.
- Postman, N. (1979). Teaching as a conserving activity. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.
- Postman, N. (1985). Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. New York, NY: Viking.
- Anthology or compilation
- Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Work in an anthology or an essay in a book
- Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Work in a coursepack
- Goleman, D. (2009). What makes a leader? In D. Demers (Ed.), AHSC 230: Interpersonal communication and relationships (pp. 47-56). Montreal, Canada: Concordia University Bookstore. (Reprinted from Harvard Business Review, 76(6), pp.93-102, 1998).
Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Guide
Parenthetical documentation allows you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference listed on the Works Cited page at the end of your paper.
In most cases, providing the author’s last name and a page number are sufficient:
- In response to rapid metropolitan expansion, urban renewal projects sought “an order in which more significant kinds of conflict, more complex and intellectually stimulating kinds of disharmony, may take place” (Mumford 485).
- If there are two or three authors, include the last name of each:
- (Winks and Kaiser 176)
(Choko, Bourassa, and Baril 258-263)
- If there are more than three authors, include the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” without any intervening punctuation:
- (Baldwin et al. 306)
- If the author is mentioned in the text, only the page reference needs to be inserted:
- According to Postman, broadcast news influences the decision-making process (51-63).
Works cited – General guidelines
The alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you’ve cited allowing readers to refer to them, as needed. The main characteristics are:
- The list of Works Cited must be on a new page at the end of your text
- Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name or by the title if there is no author
- Titles are italicized (not underlined) and all important words should be capitalized
- Entries are double-spaced (for the purposes of this page, single-spacing is used)
- Each entry must include the publication medium. Examples include: Print, Web, DVD, and Television.
Works cited – Book with 1 author/ Works cited – Book with 2 or 3 authors
Mumford, Lewis. The Culture of Cities. New York: Harcourt, 1938. Print.
Francis, R. Douglas, Richard Jones, and Donald B. Smith. Destinies: Canadian History since Confederation. Toronto: Harcourt, 2000. Print.
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Turabian Style Guide
In the parenthetical reference system recommended in this guide, authors’ names, date of publication and page number(s) are given in parentheses within the running text or at the end of block quotations, and correspond to a list of works cited which is placed at the end of the paper.
Parenthetical reference following a quotation (example):
The color blue became more prominent in the eighteenth century (Pastoureau 2001, 124).
Parenthetical reference within a sentence (example):
While one school claims that “material culture may be the most objective source of information we have concerning America’s past” (Deetz 1996, 259), others disagree.
Parenthetical reference when the author is mentioned in the sentence (example):
Chang then describes the occupation of Nanking in great detail (1997, 159-67).
Reference List – General guidelines
This list is arranged alphabetically by author’s last names and chronologically within lists of works by a single author. It can be called “References,” “Works Cited,” or “Literature Cited.”
The following sets of examples illustrate parenthetical-reference (PR) forms and corresponding reference-list (RL) entries.
- Book, Single Author
|· RL:||· Franklin, John Hope. 1985. George Washington Williams: A biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.|
- Book, Two Authors
|· PR:||· (Lynd and Lynd 1929, 67)|
|· RL:||· Lynd, Robert, and Helen Lynd. 1929. Middletown: A study in American culture. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.|
Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.
The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.
The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.
Aside from the use of notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style.
Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate citations using the notes and bibliography system. Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. Book
- One author
- Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
- Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.
- Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
- Two or more authors
- Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
- Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.
The Book of 25, explores writing as a major theme in literacy. Hangul is related to Hebrew as an example of complex-text languages, which are also bidirectional languages. This relationship can be explored through language shifts and harmonic codes. Is it a case of false cognates, where the relationship between the languages is based on spatial orientation, or does the high number of false cognates prove to illustrate, that the two languages are more similar than dissimilar? If the case of false cognates is proved accurate, is English then, as a second language increasing the amount of false cognates in the populations that use it as a second language and is that an example of linguistic harmonic coding or language shift or both?
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Cristoph De Caermichael
THE BOOK OF 25